Wednesday, 18 March 2020

Interesting information on 300 cities of India

 Interesting information on 300 cities

 Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar: The capital of Arunachal Pradesh.  The picturesque hills  The city is beautiful in the middle of a natural beauty.  • The famous Tawang Buddhist monastery is located here.

 Assam

 ૦ Dispur: Assam is the capital.  Jorhat: The monolithic rhinoceros located at Kaziranga National Park, Known for elephants as well as other animals. 

 Guwahati is the city of Kamikha Mata Temple (out of 51 Shakti Peeth)

 A Shaktipeeth).  Bhubaneshwari Temple, Navagraha Temple, Vasisthashram, Shankaradeva Kalakshetra etc. are the places to visit.  Nunmati Refinery is located here.  There is a Digboi mineral oil refinery.

 Mali is the largest river in the world located in the Brahmaputra river

 There are bats.  The educational center established by Shankardev and the Vaishnava monastery are spectacular.  The craft items and folklore celebrated here are worth celebrating.  Rare birds are found here.  સ Manassah is a sanctuary for tigers.  Shivasagar: An ancient lake spread over 129 acres is spectacular.

Andhra Pradesh - Hyderabad: Andhra Pradesh is the capital.  Being the capital of the state of Nizam before, many magnificent structures are found in this city.  There are four minarets, a southern style Birla temple of white marble on the hill, a statue of a Buddhist god, 17.5 meters high and 350 tonnes of rock in the Hussein Sea, Salarjung Museum, Shilpagram, Nehru Zoo Museum, Archaeological Museum, Makala Vidyalaya, Mecca Vidyalaya.  Visit to the Planetarium, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Ramoji Film City etc.  Is necessary.  ૦ Kolleru is a bird sanctuary.  Guntur The city is famous for its tobacco trade all over India.  • Tirupati is the magnificent temple of Lord Venkateswara (Balaji Bhagwan) on the Tirumala hills.  The gates of this temple are open 24 hours.  This temple is considered to be the richest temple in India.  Thousands of pilgrims come to visit every day.  It is important to gift the hair of the head to God.  ૦ Nagarjunakonda: The remains of Buddhist culture are spectacular.  બંધ The dam and reservoir built on the river Krishna near the Nagarjunasagar Nandi Konda are spectacular.



Warangal: Kakati is the eastern capital of the state.  Hanamkonda hill?  There is a wonderful pillar with a thousand pillars of chalukya architecture.  There is a temple of Ashtabhuja Mahakali.  Vijayawada: The city has a fifth century cave temples.  Gandhi Stupa, Tara Temple, Kanak Durga Temple, Maheshwar Temple, Narasimha Temple, Mangala Rajapuram Cave, Hazrat Bal Mosque, Deol are spectacular.  Visakhapatnam: is a port on the east coast of India.  India's largest naval base.  Dolphins Nose is a fascination with natural rock here.  India's first and fifth largest submarine museum in the world.  There is a magnificent temple of Lord Vishnu on the Sinhachalam hill near Visakhapatnam.  Srisailam: is a pilgrimage site on the banks of the river Krishna.  Here is the temple of Lord Mallikarjun in beautiful natural surroundings which Dwadash

 Jyotirlinga is one of them.  Behind Mallikarjun Temple is the magnificent temple of superpower.  Here is the memorial of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Inspiration Center.

 Odisha is the capital of Odisha, known as the city of Bhubaneswar temples.  There are about 50 other temples in the 12th century Lingaraj Temple, with a peak of 40 meters high.  Here it is like to see the Brahmsvara Temple, Mukteshwar Temple, Parashuram Temple.  The annual Rath Yatra is celebrated here in the spring.  Bhubaneswar has a 'Nandankanan' National Park.  Udayagiri: Buddhist and Hindu religion of elephant caves, tiger cave, paradise cave, snake cave and three storeys of Mauryan kings.

 Abyss Cave is spectacular.  Katak: Netaji is the birthplace of Subhash Chandra Bose.  Known for its gold and silver engraving and work.  A collection of items from Janakinath Bhawan and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is also seen here.  |  Karnak: The beautiful construction of 13th-century Vedic architecture is found in Karnak.  The huge chariot of twelve chariot shaped twelve-wheeled, seven horses and two guard seahorses at the gate are included in India's World Heritage Site.  The Navagraha Temple, Museum and Sagargat are worth seeing here.  • Most of India made up of the Chilika coastline

 There is a large salt water (lagoon) lake.  Various on the bat between Water is the attraction of the sea. 
 Dhauli: The inscription of Emperor Ashoka and founded by the Japanese Buddhist Confederates.

 Peace is spectacular.  Puri: This city is a pilgrimage to the east among the four dharmas known as Jagannath Puri.  Here is the temple of the legendary Jagannathji.  Every year, on the eighth day of the sowing season, the pilgrimage of Lord Sri Krishna, Balaram and Subhadraji leaves.  For whose sake


Many devotees come.  Shri Shankaracharya's monastery and beach are spectacular here.  ૦ Rourkela: The city is the center of the steel industry.  | 

Uttar Pradesh Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh is the capital.  The historic city, as well as the ruins of hardcore dance.  Bada Imamwada, Nawaboni graves, Chitravathi, Lucknow Residency, Bhulbhulaiya, Jawahar Bhavan and Nawabganj bird sanctuary are spectacular.

 • Ahichhatra: This is a mythical place near Ramnagar.  In ancient times it was the capital of North Panchal.  The archaeological department has found over 2,500 ancient remains from this site, including a 5-and-a-half-kilometer long coat.  Ayodhya: This city is the site of Shriram Janmabhoomi.  This town is considered as one of the seven cities of salvation.  Allahabad: This city is a pilgrimage place for people of Hindu religion.  Prayag has the confluence of the Ganges, the Yamuna and the invisible Saraswati river, where potters are full.  Akbarkalin Fort, Hanuman Temple, Patalpuri Temple, Deol, Akshaywad, birthplace of Pandit Nehru, 'Anandabhavan' and happy garden are spectacular.

 • Aligarh: Aligarh is a Muslim University.  Apart from this, there is a growing industry of locksmiths, slats, scissors.  ૦ Agra: This is a historic city.  Red Fort here, lamps like this, special lamps, pearl mosque, Taj Mahal, etc.  C  Agra stronghold of 1565, the tomb of Itimad-ud-daula's marble, Akbar's tomb, Jahangir's palace, etc. are worth seeing.  Kanpur: This is an industrial city.  Leather, hot cloth, cotton and sugar are the focus of the industry.  The Radhakrishna Temple, whose glass temple, Phoolbagh, Zoological Park, Nanarov Park, Moti Mahal, Tapeshwari Temple are worth seeing here.

 • Kausani: This city is a great place to eat air.  It is a wonderful beauty spot in the valley between the snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas.  Jhansi: This city is connected with the memory of Rani Laxmibai.  There are lightning cannons made from Saptadhatu, Bhavani Shankar cannon of Ashtadatu and five-storey palace of Rani Lakshmibai.

 • Dudhwa: Dudhwa National Park near Lakhimpur is spectacular.  Dayalbagh: The tomb of Radhaswamy is located and is the center of the Radhaswami sect.  Fatehpur Sikri: This is a historic city.  There is a magnificent Mughal at Akbar's palace, Buland Darwaj, Rani Jodhbai's palace, Sheikh Salim Chishti's Dargah, Pancham Mahal, Hawam Mahal, Birbal Bhavan etc.  Firozabad: This city is famous for glass bangles

 Bareilly: The city is known for its Visco factory, furniture, and kite towers - 3.

 • Mathura: The ancient shrine on the banks of the river Yamuna and the birthplace of Lord Sri Krishna.  There are huge temples of Lord Krishna's various forms.  This town is considered as one of the seven cities of salvation.  Here is the glory of darshan, bath and river pujan.  Kankhal Tirtha, Theater, Sati Burj, Kansan Fort and Mathura style artifacts are in the museum.  The oil refinery is located here.  Varanasi (Kashi, Benares): One of the most sacred pilgrimages of the Hindus.  This town is considered as one of the seven cities of salvation.  Kashi Vishwanath is one of the 12th Jyotirlingas.  Here are the Durga Temple, Tulsimanas Ram Temple, Bharatmata Temple, Ramnagar Fort, Banaras Hindu Vidyapeeth and museum.  Shravasti is the sacred pilgrimage of Buddhism.  ૦ Sarnath: Ancient Buddhist pilgrimage.  Here are the inscriptions and famous columns of Emperor Ashoka.  Inscriptions and stupas have been renovated.  The grounds on which the Rashtraudra is accepted are part of the Lion Headquarters Museum.  Is a Japanese Buddhist museum.  The magnificent Buddhist temple of the old Shelley is spectacular.

Indian History | Mughal and Modern India

Mughal Empire (1526 to 1540 and 1555 to 1857)


(1) Babar (1526 to 1530):Founder of the Mughal Empire, AD.  C  In 1527 Rana defeated Sangramasinha and captured Agra.  He wrote his autobiography 'Tuz-ke-babri'.

  (2) Humayu (S. A. 1530 l 1540  and 1555 to 1558) son of Babar.  After Babar's death, he became the ruler of Delhi.  Losing against Sher Shah and leaving for Persia.  After the death of Sher Shah.  C  In 1555 he defeated his brothers and the Afghans and became the king of Delhi again.  Humayun

 (3) Sher Shah Suri (1540 to 1555 AD) defeating Humayun.Became the king of Delhi.  Proficient statesman, versatile reforms and tolerance policy, entering the postal system, determining the parameters of the balance, the 'Grand' from Peshawar to Kolkata. Soon the road was built. 

(4) Akbar (d. 1556 to 1805): Humayun's largest Big son  At the age of 13, the throne sat down.  Hemu was defeated in the Second Battle of Panipat (1556 AD).  He married Jodhbai, Rajput Princess of Jaipur.  E.  C  Rana Pratap was defeated in the battle of Haldighati in 1576.  From the capital Agra to Fatehpur in honor of Sheikh Salim Chishti |  Sikari moved.  There were nine gems in Akbar's court.  E.  C  Din-e-Ilahi was founded in 1581.  Have a policy of homogeneity.


(5) Jahangir (c.1605 to 1827) Akbar's son, originally named Saleem.  Became king after Akbar's death.  E.  C  In 1611, Mehrunnissa married and named him Noorjahan.  Representative of England Sir Thomas Rowe e.  C  In 1613 permission from Jahangir to set up a kothi in Surat

 Decided.  Jahangir Sikhs were offended by the martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev.  The conquest of MewadA great military achievement. 

(6) Shahjahan (1628 to 1858): Jahangir's son became the emperor.  * Dear Queen Mumtaz Mahal  In memory, the Taj Mahal was built in Agra.  Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda, Kandahar and Kamarapura conquered.  Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Lamps and so on!  Shah Jahan built.  E.  C  Imprisoned by son Aurangzeb in 1658 and |  Death.  There e.  C  Death in 1666.  * Shah Jahan's time is the golden age of the Mughal Empire. 

(7) Aurangzeb (c. 1659 AD) 1707): Rdl lEreit made 3E and killed all his brothers and became king.  Was pious.  Temples demolished and at festivals |  Banned.  E.  C  Jupiter in 1675 |  Tegh Bahadur beheaded in Delhi |  Done.  Guru Gobind Singh to the Sikh people Took up arms and established the Khalsa Aurangzeb sect.  The fall of the Mughal Empire began.


  Modern India


                                           (C. 1772 to c. 1947) * e.  C  In 1498 the Portuguese sailor Vasco-de-Gama visited India Found a new maritime route.  * The Portuguese established their rule on the west coast of India.  * E.  C  In 1510 Alfonso de Auberque conquered Goa.  * E.  C  In 1595 the Dutch came to India and e.  C  In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was established.  * E.  C  In 1613 Sir Thomas Rowe With permission from the court of Jahangir, a business house was set up in Surat.  * E.  C  In 1670 the French people India

                   British defeated French in Karnataka wars |  Robert Clive defeated, * e.  C  Secret with Clive Mirzafar in the Battle of Plassey in 1757

 Treaty defeated Siraj-ud-daula of Bengal.  * E.  C  In the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the British conquered Bihar and Bengal

 Di.  * E.  C  In 1758 Robert Clive became the first Governor of Bengal.

 Company rule 


 Warren Hastings (1772 - 1785):
 First Governor General of India, e.  C  In 1773 the Regulating Act came into force.  Civil and criminal acts were established in the districts for justice. 

cus i-lallaa (S. t. 1785 l 1793): 
Granted ownership of land permanently.  Permanent deposit entered.  The Law Book 'Cornwallis Code' was prepared. 

Lord Chalcedley (1798 to 1805):
defeated Tipu Sultan.  The British Government expanded its assistance through the Aid Scheme.

  aus da (S. 1813l 1823):
E.  C  Conquered Nepal in 1816.  The end of the third Maratha uprising (1818 AD) ended the Maratha power in India.  E.  C  In 1818, the peace and security was established in the country by destroying the Pindaris who harassed the people in Central India.  Lord William Bantic (1828 to 1835): appointed Hindus to higher positions.  E.  C  In 1929, a law abolishing the practice of sati was made.  The practice of banning girls from breastfeeding was abolished, slavery abolished.  Prohibited the practice of human sacrifice. 

 Lord Dalhousie (1848 to 1858):
 The first railway (between Mumbai and Thane), wire and postage stamps started in India.  The Khalsa policy was implemented by the states of Punjab, Bam, Satara, Jaitpur, Jhansi, Sambalpur, Nagpur, Arct, Thanjavur, Karnataka, Nizam, Ayodhya etc.

The First War of Indian Independence (1857 to 1858)


  •  Mangal Pandey was the first martyr on March 29, 1857.  On May 10, 1857, the sepoys revolted in Meerut.

  •  The first fight for India's independence failed and the East India Company's rule ended.  India came under British rule in November, 1858.

  •  Independence of India * e.  C  Establishment of Hindi National Congress (Congress) in 1885

  •  Done.  * E.  C  In 1892 the Indian Council Act was passed.  * Tilake 'Kesari' and 'Maratha' newspapers soft in the General Assembly?

  •  Criticized the leadership.  * E.  C  In 1905 Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal.  Molestation

  •  The movement happened.  Foreign goods were boycotted under the indigenous movement.  * Establishment of Muslim League in Dhaka, December, 1906

  •  as.  * In December, 1907, the Surat Muqam split the Congress.  * The Morley-Minto Amendment (c. 1909) promoted communism in India and

  •  Encouraged classism.  * E.  C  The Homerule movement began in 1916.  * According to the Montard Amendment (1919) to the Legislative Assembly of the Center?  Binomial  Sikhs were given separate constituencies.  * Rowlett to create personal liberty and freedom of speech

  •  Act (1919) was passed.  * Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on April 13, 1919

  •  The massacre took place.  * Non-cooperation movement started in December 1920.  * Violence in Chorichora village of Gorakhpur district in February, 1922?

  •  Gandhiji postponed the non-cooperation movement.  * Swarajya Party was established in Congress.  On behalf of the self-government

  •  E.  C  Participated in the 1924 election and won a large number of Auail.  * E.  C  In 1928, the Bardoli Satyagraha took place against the unjust land-1 revenue increase in Bardoli taluka.  Vallabhbhai Patel 3

  •  Sardar 's title becomes.  * The British Government has recommended that the Constitution be given to Hindustan.  C  Appointed Simon Commission in 1927.  The people were boycotted because all its members were British.  * In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru in Lahore, Congress passed a historic resolution of 'Purna Swaraj'.  January 26, 1930 is marked as Independence Day.


* On March 12, 1930, Gandhi tried to break the salt law.  On April 6, Dandikin took a pinch of salt Gandhi violated the salt law.  * In September 1931, Gandhi attended the second Golmaji Conference

                             Attended as a representative.  Gandhi was unsuccessful.  * On August 16, 1932, the British government announced a communal verdict.  Accordingly, separate constituencies were given to Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and Harijans.  * E.  C  Implementation of provincial autonomy according to the 1935 Act Was born.  * In September 1939, at the outbreak of World War II, the Congress ministers resigned.  The experiment of provincial self-government ended.  * For Pakistan at the Muslim League Lahore meeting in March 1940  Passed the historic resolution.  For the first time since the #AugustOffer (1940), Hind has been declared as an autonomous institution.  Congress rejects itsul. 

                           In October 1940, a personal Satyagraha movement began.  Vinoba became the first satyagraha at the price.  * In March, 1942, Prime Minister of England Churchill announced the Cripps Mission.  Congress rejected the proposal because it accepted Pakistan.  On August 8, 1942, Congress led Gandhi under the leadership of 'Hind  Decided to quit 'movement. 

                        In March 1945, the "Wavell Plan" was introduced to address the question of the Indian state.  Mr. Zeena insisted that the seats allocated to the Muslims in the interim government be filled up with the name suggested by the Muslim League.  * On February 18, 1946, sailors from the Indian Navy sailed in MumbaiRebelled.  * The Cabinet Mission Plan was introduced in March, 1946.  * Muslim League takes "direct action day" to get to Pakistan (August 16, 1946) Celebrated.  * On June 3, 1947, the Congress adopted the Mount Baton Plan for partition of India due to communal riots in India.  The British Parliament passed the 'Hindu Freedom Act' in July 1947, pursuant to the scheme.  Hindustan's 'India' and 'Pakistan' were divided into two parts.


Thursday, 12 March 2020

Information about the Indian History

 Ancient India (3000 BC to 998 BC)

                                Indus Culture Place: Time on the banks of the river Indus: e.  C  From 3000 BC to 1500 BC, the city is Mohen-jo-Ballo, Harappa and Lothal  Sculpture of the Indus Civilization

                                E.  C  The remains of this membership were discovered while excavating in Larkha district of Sindh (Pakistan) in search of ancient membership in 1922-23.  The remnants of this culture in India are found in Lothal, Rangpur, Rojdi, Dholavira (Gujarat), Kalibhangan (Rajasthan), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab).  has come.

                               The specialties will be a systematic and vigilant state of interest in the species.  Wheat, rice, barley, milk, fish and meat were the main staples, cotton and wool clothing, silver, gold and copper ornaments were used.  Stone weapons, farming, hunting, fishing and raising animals were the main means of livelihood.  The township was planned.  Paki Ito had a two-storey house and sewer system.  Scales and weighing tools have been found.  Shiva, Shakti, Mother Goddess, animals and flora were worshiped.  The text has not been resolved yet.  The civilization may have been destroyed by Aryan attacks, frequent floods, fires or earthquakes.

 Vedic Arya Time: e.  C  2500 to 2000 BC

 Aye Hindukush from Central Asia crossed the mountain and settled in India.

 Destinations: The Aryans first settled in the region of Saptasindhu in Punjab and then established settlements in the Ganga and Yamuna regions.

 Specifications:
 The state system governed the village of Raja through village life, meetings and committees.  The three main officers were Purohit, Army and Gramuni.

 The practice of social cohesive family was prevalent.  The father was the head of the family.  The position of women was very high and honorable.  One was the practice of motherhood.  There was a vegetarian meal.

 Economic activity: farming, animal husbandry, hunting, textile weaving, carpentry, blacksmithing

 Religion: Worship of the sun, fire, Indra, Varun, earth.  There was a lot of faith in the sacrifices.  The kings used to sacrifice rajasuya and ashwamedh.


 Literature: (1) Veda (2) Upanishads (3) Brahmin texts (4) Aranyak (5) Manusmriti (6) Puranas

North Aryans civilized:  Prior 2000 was up to 700

 Major cities like the powerful monarchy, the standing army, the republics, Ayodhya, Indraprastha and Mathura.  Trade and industry grew.

 Religion: Worship of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh.  The beginning of Bhagwat religion.

 Socialism The society is divided into four parts: (1) Brahmin, (2) Kshatriya, (2) Vaishya and (4) Shudra.  The division began at the beginning with karma but gradually with birth.  Life span was divided into four equal parts: (1) Brahmacharyasram, (2), (3) u4U A (4) iRAIAH.

 Literature: (1) Mahabharata (2) Ramayana (3) Sutra (4) Upved (5) Vedang (6) Indian Philosophy

 Buddhism Time: BC  566 to 486 BC Founders: Gautama Buddha (Siddhartha)

 Development of Buddhism Buddhist character and talented personality.  Plain and simple discourse in the language of the people.  There was no racial and high-discrimination discrimination.  |  Key Principles (1) Four Great Truths (2) Ashtanga Ideas (3) Nivani (4 Non-Violence (5) Principles of Karma) In Kanishka's time two aspects of Buddhism fell: Mahayana and Hinayana.

 Jainism time: e.  C  599 to 527 BC

 Founder: Rishabh Deo, 24 Tirthakar, Mahavir Swami (Vardhman): Principles of Jainism 24th Tirthankar

 (2) The principle of the five vowels is non-violence, truth, invincibility, aparigraha and celibacy.

 Magadha rule period: e.  C  603 to 324 BC Palatiputra capital

 Major Statesmen: (1) Bimbisar (2) Ajahatashatru (3) Shishunaga (4) ISU-piE (5) riE

 Alexander (Alexander), king of Macedonia (Greece)  C  Invaded India in 326 BC.  Alexander was victorious in the war against the Porus king of Punjab on the banks of the river Jhelum.


Mauryan dynastic : (BC to 322 BC 285) Founder Chandragupta Maurya

Major statesmen (1) Chandragupta Maurya (2) Bindusara (3) Emperor Ashoka 'Punjab, Sindh, Hindukush from Pataliputra in the north and? South to Narmada. Chandragupta's son Bindusara had ruled all over Mysore.

Chandragupta can be considered as the first national king of the country. His espionage system was very organized. Chandragupta's political advisor Kautilya (Chanakya) wrote a book called 'Economics'. Greek representative Magsthanis wrote a book called 'Indica' about Chandragupta's rule.

Grandson of Emperor Ashok Chandragupta and son of Bindusar Time: e. C From 272 to 232 BC

E. C After the Kalinga war in 261 BC, Ashok's attitude to the regime changed. He became a preacher of non-violence and propagated Buddhism.

Secret Age Time: e. C 320 to 550 area from Brahmaputra to Yamuna and from Himalayas to Narmada

Major Statesmen: Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)

Highlights: The golden age of ancient India, the judiciary developed very well, taxation on agriculture was reduced, trade with foreigners, the golden age of Sanskrit literature, unprecedented progress in the field of architecture and art. Kalidas, Aryabhata, Varahmihir, Shankaracharya, Dhanvantari happened during this time.

Harshvardhan (600 to 647 AD) area from Brahmaputra to Punjab, Himalayas to Narmada capital: Kanooj.

Specialty: Harshvardhan was the last great emperor of ancient India. The great conqueror and aristocratic administrator, initially Shaivism, converted to Buddhism in later life. Chinese traveler visits Hue-en-Tsang Hind. His court consisted of Banabhatta, poet Mayur, Mahapandit Jaisen.

Different Regional Monarchs * Pandya (Region: South Tamil Nadu) The principal statesmen are Arikesari Marwarma, Jayawarma Kulasekhar, beautiful. Five, Veer Pandya * Pal (Region: Bengal)

Founder: Gopal Chief Statesman: Dharmapal * Rashtrakut (Region: Telangana) Major Statesmen: Govind III, Amoghavarsha, Karna III

* Chola (Region: North Tamil Nadu)

Founder: Vijayalaya (Vijayaditya) Chief Statesmen: Then, the first, Rajarajdev, Rajendra Choladev I * Gurjar-Pratihara (Region: Kanauj)

Principal States Vatsaraj, Nagabhata II, Bhoj * Rajputs: (1) Parmar

Major States: Bhoj, Vidyavardhana (ii) Chandela (Region: Bundelkhand)

Major Statesmen: Yashovarma, Vidyadhar (ii) Chauhans (Territories: Delhi, Rajasthan)

Principal Statesman: Prithviraj Chauhan * Yadav (Region: Devgiri Maharashtra)

Founder: Bhilam Chief Statesmen: Bhilam, Singban, Krishnadev, Ramdev * Hosol (Region: Karnataka)

Founders Nirikana Main Rajakarsa Nirikam, Vishnuvardhan * Chalukyas (regions of Lat, Saurashtra, Badami, Andhra Pradesh) Chief statesmen Pulakeshi I, Kirtivarma, Pulakeshi II, Tilap

2. Medieval India

(A.D. 998 to A.D. 1772) Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. C 998 to 1030

Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded India 17 times. E. C In 1026 he invaded the Somnath Temple in Gujarat and robbed it.

Mohammed Ghori From 1175 to 1206, the founder of the Muslim sultanate in India acquired territory from Delhi to Ajmer. Prithviraj defeated Mohammed Ghori in the first battle of the Tarai (1191 AD). In the Second Battle of the Tarai (1192), Ghory defeated Prithviraj and killed him.

Delhi Sultanate C 1206 to 1526 slave dynasty (AD 1206 to 1290): GUYS: n aus (S.u. 1206 ll 1210)

After the death of Mohammed Ghori, Qutbuddin Abak assumed sovereign power in Lahore. Built a mosque in Delhi and Ajmer and started construction of the Qutubminar in Delhi.

Shamsuddin Altamash (1210 to 1212) completed the construction of the Qutubminar.

Done. For the first time in India, 3 Arabic coins of silver and copper were put into the currency.

Qutubminar-Qutubuddin Aubak

Razia Sultan (1236 to 1240 CE), the first and only Muslim woman to rule Delhi

Nasiruddin Mohammed (1246 to 1266 AD): Gyasuddin Balban (S.A. 1266 to 1286) Khalji dynasty (AD 1290 to 1320):

Founder: Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji (1290 to 1296) Alauddin Khilji (1296 to 1316)

Qutbuddin Mubarakshah (1316 to 1320 AD): Alauddin Khilji was the ruler of Dhamdah. He was proud of being persecuted by Hindus. He conquered Gujarat, Malwa, Rajasthan and the southern regions. He regulated the necessities of life.

Tughlaq Dynasty (1300 to 1414 AD): Founder: Giyasuddin Tughlaq (1320 to 1325 AD)

Mohammed bin Tughlaq (1325 to 1351 AD): shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, and later made Delhi the capital again. Copper coins implemented. During this time the Arab traveler Ibn Battuta came to India.

Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351 to 1388 AD) was a time of peace and prosperity, he built five canals. He established towns like Firozpur, Firozabad, Hisar, Firoza, Jaunpur. * E. C Taimur of Turkish descent in 1398 at the time of Nasiruddin Tughlaq

Lung invaded Delhi and carried out the robbery. Syed Dynasty (1414 to 1450 AD): * Khizrkhan founded the Sayyid dynasty. Delhi and surroundings

Ruled over some districts. Lodi dynasty (1451 to 1526 AD):

Founder Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1488 AD) * restored the reputation of the Delhi Sultanate and annexed Jaunpur to the Delhi Sultanate.

Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517 AD): conquered Bihar and West Bengal. E. C Established the town of Agra in 1504. The capital was shifted from Delhi to Agra.

Ibrahim Lodi (d. 1517 to 1526), ​​the Lodi dynasty and the last king of the Delhi Sultanate.

The first battle of Panipat took place between King Babar of Kabul and Ibrahim Lodi (1515 AD). Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodi and established the Mughal Empire in Delhi.

| Hindu State of Vijayanagar (1336 to 1565 AD) Founders: Harihar and Bukkaraya Main states: Harihar, Bukkarai, Krishnadevaraya * The state of Vijayanagar was 200 years. E. C In the battle of Talikot in 1565, the Adilshahi, Nizamshahi, Qutbshahi and Bredshahi kings invaded and defeated Ramrai, the king of Vijayanagar.

Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Modern Gujarat Country of Gujarat | Gujarat's History

Modern Gujarat Country of Gujarat: 

                                              Out of total 562 Indian states, Gujarat had 366 country states, Junagadh, Navanagar, Bhavnagar, Dhangadhra, Porbandar, Morbi, Gondal, Wankaner and Rajkot Saurashtra.  There were big states.  The rulers of states like Rajpipla, Devgadhbaria, Lunawada, Chota Udaipur etc. were Rajputs and the rulers of Vadasinore, Khambhat, Sachin, Radhanpur and Palanpur were Muslims.  Vadodara State witnessed significant development during the time of Sayajirao Gaikwad III (1875 to 1939).  British era: e.  C  With the end of Peshawar in 1818, the British East India Company became the sovereign power.  The findings of Gujarat to the company were divided into five districts.  E.  C  In 1853, Sindia conferred on the Chamhal district and British territories of Pavagadh and Champaner.  With the establishment of the British Government in Gujarat the happiness of the common people increased.  Political change also had an impact on social t hese.  The British government also made social reforms Not to do.

Conflict of 1857:                                            
                                       The revolt in Gujarat began in June, 1857, the seventh contingent of Ahmedabad army.  Government offices in Godhra, Dahod and Zalod were captured in July.  During this time jagirdars revolted at places like Kheralu, Patan, Bhiloda, Vijapur etc.  Anand's chief Gurbaddas confronted the British in the Kheda district;  Tatya Tope entered Chhota Udaipur in Gujarat.  By June, 1858, the people of Gujarat were completely disarmed.

The era of the British crown: e.  C  In 1858 the British crown took over the administration of India.  The five districts of Gujarat were administered by the Governor of Mumbai Ilaka.  The British Government e.  C  In 1860, the Surat businessmen started the movement, beginning with the income tax.  Is.  In 1878 there was also a protest in Surat against the license tax.

Independence in Gujarat: e.  C  In 1871, in Surat and Bharuch,  C  In 1872 a political organization called the People's Republic was established in Ahmedabad.  E.  C  Gujarat Sabha was established in 1884 in Ahmedabad.  E.  C  In 1885, the first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Mumbai in the building of a Gujarati institute called Gokaldas Tejpal Pathshala.  Then the congressional convention - e.  C  In Ahmedabad in 1902 and e.  C  Born in 1907 in Surat.  - Arvind Ghosh inspired the armed revolution in Gujarat.  Was.  On November 13, 1909, the Viceroy Lord Minto was bombed near the Raipur gate in Ahmedabad.  E.  C  Magnabhai Chaturbhai Patel Homer in Ahmedabad in 1916 |  A league branch was established.  In March, 1918, Annie Besant held meetings in Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad and Bharuch.

                                      Gandhi came from South Africa on May 25, 1915 and established the 'Satyagraha Ashram' in Kocharb village, Ahmedabad.  Gandhiji introduced the hardship of the people on the issue of Jakatam in Viragam.  Ahmedabad workers demanded a 35% pay rise, Gandhi advised him to strike.  The strike was successful, and the mill workers received a salary increase of 35 percent.  E.  C  In 1917, the farmers did not waive the revenue of the farmers even though the crop failed due to the rains in Kheda district.  Under Gandhiji's leadership, the farmers of Kheda started Satyagraha.  E.  C  Gandhi succeeded in 1918 .. e.  C  The 'Rowlett Act' passed in 1919 resulted in a strike in Ahmedabad and Nadiad on April 6 in Gujarat.  Despite the army calling in Ahmedabad, incidents of fire continued.  The strike struck Anand on April 13.

                        Gandhi made three days of fasting in Ahmedabad to make peace with the atonement of the violence.  Gujarat Vidyapeeth was established in Ahmedabad on October 18, 1920, in the constructive aspect of the Non-Cooperation Movement, boycotting government education and resigning the professors of the colleges of Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara.  The students Leaving high school.  The lawyers abandoned the plea deal.  The sisters were picketing at foreign cloth shops and the foreign cloth was hoisted.  Gujarat contributed 15 lakhs in the Tilak Swaraj contribution.  The movement was stopped because of violence in the area.  - People protested the additional tax expenditure tax levied in Borsad taluka.  In this Satyagraha, the 'Sangram Samiti' formed by the President of Durbar Gopal Das was conquered.  E.  C  In 1928, land revenue in Bardoli taluka of Surat district was increased by 22 percent.  People opposed this increase.

                           Gandhi handed over the responsibility of Satyagraha to Vallabhbhai Patel.  The government launched a suppression policy.  The whole of India celebrated "Bardoli Day" in sympathy with the Bardoli Satyagraha.  In this fight Satyagraha conquered and Vallabhbhai Patel was called 'Sardar'.  On October 12, 1928, some students of Gujarat College in Ahmedabad went on strike in protest against the Simon Commission.  Shiraz, the principal of the college, retaliated against him.  So the students had a 39-day strike.  On January 30, 1929, colleges across the country strike "All India Gujarat College Day 'is celebrated and Shiraz hates the move.  On March 12, 1930, Gandhi, along with his 78 colleagues, started a Dandikuchi from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.  6, reached the stalk in April, took a pinch of salt.

                                      Thus Gandhi violated the salt law.  Satyagrahis were brutally stabbed in the garrison of Surat district.  Nakar fighting took place in Bardoli and Borsad taluka.  Dholera and Veeramgam also became centers of lawlessness of salt.  In Gujarat, Sardar Patel, Morarji Desai, Dr. Chandulal Desai and Kaniyalal Desai were arrested before they took personal satyagraha.  By March 1, 1941, 296 satyagrahis were arrested from Gujarat.  During the fight, people protested against the arrest of the leaders.

                                      On 8th August, 1942, the resolution of 'Quit Hind' was passed at a meeting of the General Assembly in Mumbai.  In the early morning hours of August 9, Ganesh Mawlankar and Bhogilal Lala from Ahmedabad, Champaklal Daya from Surat and Via Chotubhai via Chotubhai Sutaria and Pranalal Munshi from Vadodara.  Congress leaders like Manekalal Gandhi, Dinkararai Desai, Balwantaray Mehta and Ucharangarai Dhebar were arrested from Saurashtra.  Of Ahmedabad from 9 August There was a 105-day strike in mills, markets, schools and colleges.  On May 9, Umakant Kadia was martyred in a firing at Khadi in Ahmedabad.  A procession of students leaving Law College became a martyr on the occasion of shooting at Gujarat College.  On the evening of August 18, five youths of Vadodara were killed by police firing near Adas Station.  - News and programs of the movement were provided in secret pamphlets appearing from many places in Gujarat.  B. from Ahmedabad.

                                          That  Majmudar, Jayanti Thakor, Kantilal Daya, Chhotubhai Purani from Bharuch district and Ratubhai Adani from Saurashtra were handling the activities of the scandal.  Kishorelal Mashrawala appeared in the Harijan issue of August 23, which permits the sabotage.  Accordingly, wire and telephone ropes were cut at several places in Gujarat, police parties, policemen, police outposts, post offices and non-strike shops were thrown.  The acid-filled bulbs were placed on the cops, which prevented them from entering the hive.  Various groups in Ahmedabad made bombs and threw them at police posts, post-offices and government offices and spread chaos.

                                         Thus during the 'Hindu Chhodo' movement, a large number of sabotage activities took place in Gujarat.  (India became independent on August 15, 1947 after the end of World War II. The formation of the state of Mumbai on November 1, 1956 brought the unification of Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch.  Four youths were martyred when the demonstrators opened fire on the Congress House in Ahmedabad on August 1956. Hood in cities Nadiad, Anand, Vadodara etc.  Within a few days, the movement spread all over Gujarat .In September 1956, a 'Mahagurajata Janata Parishad' was organized under the leadership of Indulal Yagnik. Violent: Morarji Desai fasted in protest of the incidents.  Finally, in March 1960, the central government split the bilingual state of Mumbai.  Passed and the project was formed on May 1, a separate Gujarat including Kutch and Saurashtra state from 1960. Became the capital of Gujarat. E. C. Was developed as Gandhinagar? Hitendrabhai Mr. Desai's capital in 1970.

Thursday, 5 March 2020

History of Gujarat | Prehistoric Era,Mahabharata Yuga etc.

 Ancient Gujarat


 Prehistoric Era: From archaeological research, it can be inferred that some regions of India are comparable to some of Gujarat.The human life of the regions may also have passed through the ancient Stone Age, the Middle Ages, and the Neolithic Age.  Sabarmati, Mahi, Reva Ra, (Narmada), Meshvo, Mazam, Viswamitri, Saraswati, Banas, Enjoy, Bhadar etc. prehistoric times from rivers and rivers Locations and remains have been recovered.  In the metallic age, Gujarat's  Development of industries with farming in the regions and cities along with villages Was born.  Somnath Patan, Lothal, Bhrigukha, Pillarthirth, Sopara |  Etc. Trade with the parasites was going on through the ports.  Rangpur (Dist. Surendranagar), Lothal (Dist. Ahmedabad), Kot and Padhamali (Dist. Mehsana), Lakhabaval and Amra (Dist. Jamnagar), Found from Rojadi (Dist. Rajkot), Dholavira (Dist. Kutch), Somnath Patan Road (Dist. Girsomnath), Bharuch and Surat Districts. The remains of the culture of Harappa and the mouth-if-ball bear witness to this fact.

 Mahabharata Yuga: The chronological age is followed by the New Stone Age and the Vedic period after the culture age;  But in Vedic literature of Gujarat region |  No mention is found, in the Mahabharata, several states belonging to different states are mentioned in mythological literature.  The son of Shariat Anarth |  The state was established over Saurashtra and northern parts of Gujarat and the region was called 'Anarkat'.  |  Tired of the torture of Jarasandha and Shishupala, the Yadavas, led by Sri Krishna, migrated to Saurashtra.  Anwar's son, Revat, was defeated by Yadav.  Sri Krishna established his capital there by placing a new town (present-day Dwarka) near Kushsthali.  E.  C  |  In the 14th century BC, Yadavasatta was at the forefront in Saurashtra and Gujarat.

                      After the recession of the Yadavas, no disputes have been received as to where the powers of the princes were established in Saurashtra and Gujarat.Starts with foul play, e.  C  Of Gujarat and Saurashtra in 319 BC The territories came under the control of Chandragupta, the king of Magadha, the Chakra of Magadha.  Of Suba Pushpagupta Girinagar (Junagadh) of Saurashtra and its In the adjoining inscription near Girnar mountain in Ashoka, a reservoir called 'Sudarshan' was built to encourage agriculture in the surrounding region.  It is known from the Jain anusruti that Chandragupta, Ashok and his grandson were ruled in the Mauryan era.


 Anu-Maurya Yuga: After the fall of the Mauryan rule, there was no dominant rule in Gujarat.  For four centuries after the birth of Jesus, the ruins of the Khatrapas remained.  According to the inscriptions near Girnar, Rudrada was the best ruler in the Kshatrapas.  The last Kshatrapa king Rudra Singh III was defeated by the secret emperor Chandragupta II and ended the Kshatrapa rule from Saurashtra and Gujarat.  The Secret Age: e.  C  His coins and articles prove that Chandragupta II had conquered Saurashtra, Gujarat and Mavar around 400 AD.  The gold and silver coins of Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta and Skandagupta were found in these regions.

                                                   E.  C  In 455, the Suba of Skandagupta rebuilt the Sudarshan lake, which was broken due to heavy rainfall.  During the Gupta era, Vaishnavism was propagated.  Friendly era: Bhattarak, of the suba-friendly lineage of the Gupta king, under the collapse of the secret kingdom.  C  In 470, an independent power of Gujarat was established in Vallabhpur.  The clan of this clan was Shaiva.  Another magnificent king of the Maitrak dynasty was King Guhsen (d. 553 to 569).  Appreciation of his donations shows that Guhassen was a popular ruler.  The Shiladitya I of this dynasty (d. 590 to 615 CE) was known as 'Dharmaditya'.  During the time of Dhruvsen II (627 to 643 AD), Chinese traveler UN Sang  C  640 visited Gujarat.  Dhruisen II's son Dharesen IV (643 to 650 AD) assumed the title of 'Maharaja' and 'Chakravati'.  The authority of the Allies was prevalent in all Saurashtra and North and Central Gujarat.  There were several Buddhist monasteries in Valabipur.  The Valabhi Vidyapeeth was counted in the rows of Nalanda Vidyapeeth.  E.  C  In 788 the Arab invasions ended the Allied rule.

                                   E.  C  From 788 to 942, no sovereign rule existed in Gujarat.  Saurashtra, the contemporary state of the Allies, was ruled by the rulers of the Galka clan (capital: Dhikal) and of the Sindhva dynasty (capital: Dhumli).South Gujarat was ruled by the Sakkutas (Aparanth region), Cut3Rio (Bhrigukchha), Gurjar Nripati (Nandipur), Chamana (Ankleshwar), Sandrak (Tapi coast) and Chalukya (Navsari).  Non-friendly era: e.  C  The Chawda dynasty was ruled in the territories of northern Gujarat from 746 to 942.


                      Their capital was in Panchasar (a village near Radhanpur. Some parts of northern Gujarat ruled Gujarat for nearly 200 years. Bhilmaal (present-day Bhinmal, located in the northwest of Abu), was the capital of that time.  The kingdom was in Khet (Nashik), from 750 to 972).  In order to protect them, they settled in an abandoned homeland; they became known as 'Parsis'.  Mool Raj Solanki (942 to 997 AD) became the sovereign ruler of Kutch, Saurashtra, North Gujarat and Kheda.  In the time of Bhimadeva (1022 to 1064), Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi looted the Somnath Temple on 7th January 1026. Bhimadeva built a new stone temple in 1027 AD, also known as Modhiram.  Built during the reign of Bhimadeva.  Bhimadev appointed Vimalamantri as a punisher of Abu.  He built Adinath's marble temple there.  Karnadev (d. 1094 to 1143 AD) imposed his rule on Navsari region.  He conquered Ashapalli and established Karnatavinagar.  Siddaraj Jaisingh (d. 1094 to 1143 AD) was the most powerful, courageous and diplomatic king of the Solanki dynasty.

                       Siddaraj defeated King Rahengar of Junagadh and defeated King Yashovarma of Mervas and assumed the title of 'Avantinath'.  Its empire extended to Saurashtra, Kutch as well as Khambhat, Bharuch and Lat region in the south and parts of Rajasthan.  Siddaraj built a seastling lake in Patan and renovated the Rudramahali of Sidhpur.  He inspired Hemchandracharya to write a grammar treatise entitled "Siddhemah Shabnushasan".  Kumar Pal, who grew up in Asmita in Gujarat (1143 to 1173 AD) was a popular and ideal king. 


     He defeated King Arnoraj of Ajmer and Mallikarjun, king of Konkan.  Kumarpal loved Jainism.  Bhimdev II (1178 to 1242 AD) ruled for almost 63 years.  He was a weak king.  In its time the Solanki dynasty ended and the Vaghela dynasty began.  Rana Virdhwal of Dholka and Mahamata Shematpal and Tejpal of Dholka played an important part in the protection of the Solanki state.  E.  C  With the death of Tribhuvanapal in 1244, the Solanki dynasty lost power.  Vaghela-Solanki era: e.  C  In 1244 Mahamandaleshwar Visaldev of Dholka (1244 to 1262 AD) attained the throne of Patan.

                          He Wars were fought with the kings of Mewar and Karnataka.  Karnadeva of this dynasty (1296 to 1304 AD) was the last Rajput king of Gujarat.  Karnadev's great-grandfather Madhav had invited Muslims to invade Gujarat.  By the orders of Ala-ud-din Khalji, Ulughkhan and Nasratkha raided Gujarat and Anahilpur fell into the hands of Muslim rulers.

 2. Greater Gujarat Delhi Sultanate era: Ala-ud-din Alpakhan (d. 1306 to 1315) became governor of Gujarat.  Ala-ud-din regulates the necessities of life.  Tactical age: e.  C  In 1920, the Tughlaq era began.  Mohammad Tughlaq of the Tughlaq dynasty was eccentric and scholarly.  Much of his time was spent in the uprising of the rich, the bottomless, etc.  He defeated the kings of Junagadh and Ghogha.  E.  C  In 1398, Taimur raided Delhi and took Tatarakha (before Muhammad Shah) to Gujarat.  Gujarat Sultanate era: October, 1407 to Zafar.  Assuming the pre-Muzaffar Shah rule, Birpur Mukam established an independent Muslim state of Gujarat.

                           On January 10, 1411, Ahmed Khan assumed the title of 'Naseeruddin Ahmed Shah'.  He is considered the true founder of the Sultanate of Gujarat.  He established the city of Ahmedabad near Karnawatinagar on April 13, 1411 and moved his capital from Patan to Ahmedabad.  He extinguished the revolts in Vadodara and Modasa, and waged frequent battles with the Rao and the Sultanate of Eder in Idar.  He defeated the kings of Jhalawar, Champaner, Nandod and Junagadh, and Ahmad Shah, the Sultan of Baham.  He built Ahmednagar (Himmatnagar) on the banks of the river Hathamati.  In its time, the Juma Mosque, Bhadra fort and three gates were constructed in Ahmedabad.  Qutubuddin Ahmadshah (1451 to 1458 AD) built 'Hoje Qutub' (Lake Kankaria) and Naginawadi.  Naseeruddin Mehmood Shah (renowned as Mahmud Begda) in the history of Gujarat (1458 to 1513 AD) was the best ruler among the Muslim rulers.

                          He conquered Junagadh and Pavagadh and defeated the kings of Champaner, Sind, Malwa and Idar.  Mahmud Begda defeated the Phirangias near the Cheval port and the pirates near Dwarka.  He built mosques, rojas, buildings, etc. in Sarkhej, Rasulabad, Watawa, Ahmedabad, Champaner and Dholka.  In his time, there was the establishment of Dada Hari's Vav and Adalaj Vav in Ahmedabad.  Muzaffar Shah II (1513 to 1526 CE) was a learned, moderate and holy sultan.  He defeated the kings of Eder, Chittor, and Malvar in battle.  He made a serious mistake by allowing the Portuguese, who were a minor help in the fight against Humayun, to trade in Diu.  Of the last Sultan Muzaffar Shah III (1561 to 1572 AD)

Gujarat Geography | Rivers of Gujarat

                               


1 South Rivers of Gujarat: 

             (1) Narmada: Tara of Madhya Pradesh. (Dist. Mehsana) From the Amarkantak (1066 m) of the Michael Mountains, the hills of Bharuch to Khadir (Dist. Kutch) meet the hills of Khawada (Dist. Kutch), 24 km away in the Khambhat of Khambhat. Its total length (K. Narmada) is 1312 km. Its Dry is 160 km. In Lakhpat (Dist. Kutch) Wilson (Dist. Valsad) Total savavistara is 98.796 sq km. Narmada haphesvara have 4. uoile enters the field in Gujarat. Gujarat seasonal abohavavalo there Kaila and Kalindri River Region. Meets the north of the state. Between Shuklathirth and Bharuch, it finds the Amravati and the Hunger River, in the Narmada flows pass through Kabirwad and the tributary along Shuklathirth, and here Kachchh, Patan and Banaskantha mouth have the important bats. There are deserts in the district of Chandod, on the coast of Narmada. Due to the unique shape of Gujarat, Karnali, Malsar, Nareshwar and Shukla Tirth are famous pilgrimage sites in the climate. There are variations. Marine climate is experienced in the coastal regions. The effect of sea tides is up to 40 km in the river and the seasons: 1) Winter: useful for sailing up to 104 km during the December to February months. The temperature is lower in Navgam Gujarat on this river. January is the coldest month that the 'Lakefront Plan' has come true.


(ii) Tapi: Bethabat in the hills of Mahadev in Madhya Pradesh meets the Arabian Sea near Surat.  Its total length It is 720 km, its length is 144 km in Gujarat.  Tapi enters Gujarat from a place called 'Harafala'.  There are 'Ukai' and 'Kakrapar' plans on the Tapi River.  The effect of ocean tidesThe river lives for up to 45 km and is useful for sailing up to 110 km.

(iii) Purna: The Pipelnar mountain is found in the Arabian Sea.  It has a length of 80 km.  Near Navsari it is divided into two splits.

 (iv) Ambika: Exits from the hills of Vansda to the Arabian Sea, 24 km from Purna.  It is 64 km in length.

 (v) Auranga: The Dharampur hill departs the Arabian Sea about 13 km from Ambika.  Valsad city is situated on the river Auranga.

 (vi) Paar: 10 km south of Aurangabad crosses the Arabian Sea.  It has a length of 80 km.

 (vii) Kolkata: separates Daman from Pardi.  The impact of ocean tides can last up to 13 km.  Black fish are obtained from the river bed.  |  (iii) Damnanga: Located on the southern border of Gujarat.  In the monsoon it comes with horseback.  The impact of ocean tides can last up to 13 km.

 (2) Rivers of Central Gujarat :-

(1) Sabarmati: Dhebar Sarovar near Udaipur meets the Gulf of Khambhat beyond Woutha.  It flows through Banaskantha, Sabarkantha, Mehsana, Gandhinagar, Aravalli, Ahmedabad, Kheda and Anand districts.  It has a length of 321 km.  It receives the Khari, Vatrak, Mazam, Bhogavo, Meshwu, Sukbhadar, Sheedi, Hathamati and Angli rivers.  Seven rivers are believed to have formed near Wautha in Ahmedabad district.

 (ii) Mahi: Departing from Anjra in Madhya Pradesh, Vanswada district of Rajasthan enters Gujarat and meets the Gulf of Khambhat.  Its total length is 500 km, in Gujarat it is 180 km.  The Mahi River gets the Pineapple, Panam, Misri and Gulti, rivers.  Due to the tidal wave, the river bed has become enormous in the flow of 70 km.  The river is 1 km wide near Vhera Bay.  Hence it is known as 'Mahisagar'.  On this river there is a scheme of 'Vankabori' and 'Kadana'. 

(3) Rivers of North Gujarat:

 (i) Banas: Rajasthan R ra night it no Banaskantha, Patan and Kachhi depart from the Siranava mountain in Rohi district and merge into the Kutch desert.

 (ii) Saraswati got out of the stolen hill of Danta taluka and from the district of Jadhpur, Patan and Kachchh and joined the desert of Kutch.


 (iii) Rupan: Banaskantha, Mehsana, Patan and Kutch * flow from the district into the Kutch desert.


(4) Rivers of Saurashtra:

Rivers of Saurashtra flow out of the hilly region of the Central all the three sides.

1) Bhadar: The river originates from the highlands of Anandpur, north of Jasdan, and meets the Arabian Sea near Nawabandar.  It has a length of 194 km.  It is found in Karnal, Vanswadi, Gondli, Haste, Bhopal, Mojaveanu, Meenasar and Ozt rivers.  The river is situated on the river Jasdan, Atkot, Nawagadh, Dhoraji, Upleta, Ganod and Nayapur.  Near Lilakha and Nawagam near Jetpur, Bhadar Dam is closed.  |

 (ii) Shritunji: Gir dundi originates from the hill and meets the Gulf of Khambhat near Sultanpur.  It has a length of 173 km.  He finds the river Gagadio.  Dams are constructed near Khodiyar mother's station near Dhari and near Rajasthali near Palitana. 

 (iii) Wadhwana Bhogavo :The river originates from the hill near Nawagam in Chotila taluka and passes through the Chotila, Sila, Mulli and Wadhwans to the tap sank.  It has a length of 101 km.  On this river there is a dam named 'Naika' near Gautamgarh and Dholadhaja near Surendranagar.

 (iv) Limbdi bhogavo: This river flows from the Bhimora hill of Chotila taluka.  Its length is 113 km.  The dam is closed on this river near Thoriyali village of Sila taluka.

 (v) Machu: This river is the Anandpur-Rentals of the Chotila taluka.  Departing from the village, passing through the city of Wakaner and Morbi merges into the small desert of Kutch near Mariya (Miyana).  Its length 113 Bl 9.

 (vi) Soak Bhader: Exit from the hill near Chotila and meet Dhulera near Dhulera and meet the Gulf of Khambhat.

 (vii) Ghelo :The river is found in the Somnath, Gadhda, Adtala, Nawagam and Valbhapur Gulf of Khambhata, which flows from the highlands near Fulzer.  Its length is 90 km.

 |(iii) Kalubhar: From the hills of Raipur near Samadhira, it meets the bay of Bhavnagar in the Gulf of Khambhat.  Its length is 95 l 9.

 Apart from this, there are small rivers like Rondoli, Mallan, Ghardwadi, Rawal, Machundri, horns, deer, Sunny, Saosi, Nagmati, Deep, Brahmin and Falk.

 (5) Rivers of Kutch:

                                         Mitti, Naira, Khari, Bhukhi, Kankavati and Rukmavati are the main rivers.  These rivers flow south to the Gulf of Kutch.  Except monsoon, these rivers remain dry.

                     Tap Lake: The tap lake is located in a small desert region of Kutch and the lowland region connecting the Gulf of the Kumbh.  The length of the tap lake is 32 km and the width is 6.5 km.  It has an area of ​​120.82 sq km.  Its depth is 5 to 8 meters.  Its water is salt in the monsoon, but it is immediately salty due to the salinity of the bottom.  There are small islands in the tap lake.  It is the largest island in Panvad.  Here in winter many species of birds come from far flung regions of the world.  Tourists come here to see and enjoy these birds.  The area of ​​the tap lake has been declared as a sanctuary.

Gujarat Geography | Location, boundary and area

 Gujarat Geography


1. Location, boundary and area


                                 And the coast between Tapi is made up of alkaline mud.Called the 'hills of swine'. Sandy Establishment of Tapi's North Shore: The program of restructuring the linguistic states of independent India is made up of hills. From Tappi to Khambhat, the shoreline, under the trench, was established on May 1, 1960, "from the state of Mumbai and is muddy, in the Gulf of Khambhat the state of Eliabat and Pirum 'Gujarat' was established. There are bats. Near Bhavnagar there are Sultanpur and Jagri bats. South location: In the western part of India, on the shores of the Arabian Sea, there are Diu, Sial and Savai bats along the coast of Saurashtra. The latitude 20 ° 1'el 24 ° 7 'north latitude from Manavadar is known as' Sheep'. West Longitude of Saurashtra: 68 ° 4'74 74 "4" East Longitude is the Bat Dwarka, Nora Bait and Wadda Bats. From Bat Dwarka to Kutch, the northern part of the state (between Provinces and Himmatnagar) is a small desert shore and alkaloid. Most of the southern part of the state is in the sub-zone: Jamnagar and Devbhumi are located in Dwarka district. The island of Pirotan is famous in the temperate tropics of the north, 10 to 13 km wide west of Kutch: 1,96,024 sq km and the southern coast is muddy, where some north-south length: 590 km 'lagoon' lake is formed. West Width: 500 km Desert Area: Large desert north of Kutch and small desert in the middle, border: Kutch is a large desert on the northern border with Pakistan. Raphala is 27,200 sq km. Parachama Big Rann of Kutch,


                                   On the international border, northeast, Rajasthan, on the east border, Khadir, Bella and Khwad have high terrain. Plains of Maharashtra and West (2) Gujarat along Madhya Pradesh, Agni and southern border: (1) Plains of North Gujarat: This plain is characterized by the sedimentation of the Arabian Sea Sabarmati and Banas rivers on the border.

                                    Marine boundary: 1,600 km has occurred. The plains are spread over the area of ​​Mehsana, Patan, Sabarkantha, Aravalli and the Gulf: the Korinal and Kutch Gulf on the west and Banaskantha district of Khambhat in the south. The semi-desert area west of the Gulf of Banaskantha district is known as 'Godha'. Mahabandar: Kandla (Free Trade Area) (ii) Plains of Central Gujarat: Orsang, Dhadhar, Vishwamitri, Mahi, Middle-class ports: Mandvi, Navlakhi, Bedi, Okha, Porbandar, Shedi, Moor, Vatrak and Sabarmati rivers. , Coins, salayas, grounds. The plains are spread over Vadodara, Anand, Kheda, Aravalli, Mahisagar, Magadalla, Wadinar, Pipavav, Dahej and Mundra, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad districts. Vatrak International Airport: The region between Ahmedabad and Mahi River is known as 'Charotar'. Other airports of Charotar: Rajkot, Bhuj, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar, Vadodara, Ahmedabad Plains are round-headed hills made of thaltej and Jodhpur sand cache, Porbandar, Surat, Kandla. The fertile railway route of Central Gujarat is 5,696 km.S350: 72.165 B (iii) Grounds of South Gujarat: Damanganga, Par, Auranga, Industrial Estates: 263 Ambika, Purna, Mindhola, Tapi, Kim and Narmada rivers.

                                   2. This field is made up of surface sediment deposition. The plains are spread in the area of ​​Surat, Tapi, Narmada and Bharuch districts by the name of 'Gursar' tribe coming from Valsad, Navsari, Syria. The region is believed to have got the name 'Gujarat'. The ancient plains are known as 'flood plains'. In different times, various parts of Gujarat were named as? (1) Highland of Saurashtra: This plateau is made up of rocks in the igneous (1) Anarnat of Bhansalt: the northern part of Talgajurat. Girnar, Chotilo, Bardo, Shatrujaya (2) 'Lat' in this highland: the central and southern part of present-day Gujarat are mountains. The hills of Mandavi in ​​the north and Gir of the southern (3) 'Saurashtra': The subtropical part of present-day Saurashtra is connected by a narrow, high area in the middle of the hills.



                                         Surface: In terms of surface area, there are four sections of Gujarat: (4) mountainous regions of Gujarat (1) hills of Gujarat (1) beaches and deserts of Gujarat, (2) plains of Gujarat, regions: high hills of Danta and Palanpur as high hills. And (4) the mountainous regions of Gujarat. As well as the hills near Khedbrahma, Eder and Shamlaji 'Arasur

                                       (1) Beaches and deserts of Gujarat: Beaches:? Hills'. Pavagadh and Gujarat have the longest beaches in central Gujarat. There are hills in India's total Ratan Mahal. Pavagadh is 936.2 m high, Gujarat occupies about a third of Narmada's coastline. To the south of Damananga or south is the hills of Rajpipla, to the south of Tapi the seventh (Sahyadri),



                                              monsoon: June to September period 'monsoon season'The hills are part of the mountains. Dang is the saputara of the district. As a result of the impact of the sea waves, the temperature (960 m) is the only destination of Gujarat in South Gujarat. Valsad is in the district. In the Himalayas due to snowfall, Parneera hills are located all over Gujarat. It is hard to feel cold. Sometimes there is snow, sometimes (ii) the hilly region of Kutch: Kutch has a northern edge, a central edge, a little rain in the winter, also called 'Math'. There are three rows of Gujarat and the southern edge. The winters in the north shore are healthy and pleasant. Black (437.08 m), garau, troughs etc. are mountains. Mid-summer

                                 (2) summers: During March to May, the temperature in Gujarat is between Lakhpat to Vagad, in this range the Dhondhar (388 high, May is the hottest. The coastal meter), Bhujio, Lilio etc. are mountainous. The summers are relatively warm in the southern edge of the leafy region. It is spread in North Gujarat as well as from the mother's mouth and extends to the Anjar in the east. It can sometimes be experienced as a 'Lu' situation. The summers of Gujarat are Umia (274 m) and Zura (316 m) hills. It is hot and dry. Bhuj has a northwesterly (349 m) hill. There are hills of Kanthakot in the Vagad plains. In Kutch there are plains near the coast. Most of the rainfall in Gujarat falls in July and August. Known as the 'Battle Ground'. During the monsoon season, the storms from the Arabian Sea are heavy      
           
                             (ii) the mountainous region of Saurashtra in the northern Mandavi hills. In Gujarat, the rainfall received by the seasonal winds is the highest peak (437.1 m). Due to the irregularities and uncertainties of the southern Gir, sometimes the hill is the highest hill (643 m). Junagadh creates heavy rainfall or hailstorm conditions. Girnar (1153.2 m), adjacent to it, is sometimes the highest mountain in Gujarat. It rains for seven to ten days, called 'hali'. Its peak is Gorkhanath (1117 m), the highest peak of Gujarat
         
                          (4). Shatrunjaya (697.5 m) near Palitana, the period north of Bhavnagar, calls the 'period of transformation', the heat of October adversely affects the health of the people north of Mahuva, on the Khokra and the Pondja hills, near Bora, Porbandar. The last lows of November are the important hills of Saurashtra. Saurashtra experiences a cold and cool weekend. The Bhadar river plains, the Ghogha plains and the Morbi plains are composed of sediments separated from the igneous rocks ..


  • Precipitation and expansion of rainfall in Gujarat:


                                           (1) More than 100 cm: Valsad, Dang, Navsari, Surat, Tapi, 3. Chota Chhata Udepur, Bharuch, Narmada and Vadodara district east of Dattatreya: Girnar (Dist. Junagadh) | Black (Dist. Kutch) (i) From 80 to 100 cm: Saputara (Dist. Dang) of Bharuch and Vadodara Districts Bhujiyo (Dist. Kutch) West area, Dahod, Panchmahal, Anand, Mahisagar, Aravalli,

Ratnamahal (Dist. Dahod) Nakhatrana (Dist. Kutch) Gandhinagar, Kheda and Sabarkantha Districts Pavagadh (Dist. Panchamahal) Osam (Dist. Rajkot) (til) 40 to 90 cm Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Mehsana, Tehsil Chowti, Girna. Surendranagar) Patan, Banaskantha and all the districts of Saurashtra (Dist. Amreli, Girsomnath Shatrunjaya (Dist. Bhavnagar) | (iv) Less than 40 cm: Banaskantha and Patan Districts and Junagadh) Shihor (Dist. Bhavnagar). Whole Kutch District Bardo (Dist, Porbandar) Eder (Dist. Sabarkantha) 5. Bahais and Sarovar Satyadev (Dist. Jamnagar) Arasur (Dist. Banaskantha) Dhinodhar (Dist. Kutch)